Updated 2:12 PM EST, Wed, Jan 29, 2020

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Scientists Say 'Red Geysers' Make Dormant Galaxies

XSP: NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera Images

(Photo : NASA/ESA via Getty Images) This handout image of the giant, active galaxy NGC 1275, obtained August 21, 2008 was taken using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys in July and August 2006.

Galaxies have turned into deserts without young stars billions of years ago due to galactic warming. The phenomenon has puzzled astronomers to identify the process that makes the gas in these galaxies too energetic and hot to make stars.

Sloan Digital Sky Survey recently announced the discovery of red geysers, a new galaxy class that are able to harbor winds with supermassive black holes. According to them, these are what make dormant galaxies. Lead author Edmund Cheung said, "We knew that there had to be a way to prevent star formation in these galaxies, and now we have a good idea of what it is."

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Cheung, an astronomer from University of Tokyo, was working with astronomers who are studying hundreds of galaxies. In the course of their study, they caught a black hole swallowing the cold gas in the host galaxy.

Giant black holes' cosmic seeds from the early universe have been discovered by astronomers through NASA's Great Observatories in their search for the best piece of evidence.  The findings of this research will be published in the new Monthly Notices issue of the Royal Astronomical Society.

The possible giant black hole seeds were identified the combined information gathered from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, Chandra X-ray Observatory and Spitzer Space Telescope. The research team, which was led by Fabio Pacucci of Scuola Normale Superiore in Italy, revealed that this newly-found discovery may offer an explanation about how giant black holes came to exist. He added that this proves that giant black hole seeds could form straight from the breakdown of a massive gas cloud that skips any intermediate steps.

A giant black hole is believed to lie in the center of almost all massive galaxies, which includes the Milky Way. Scientists have discovered that some of these giant black holes with millions to even billions of times the mass of the Sun, were brought into being after a billion years since the universe started through the Big Bang. A theory suggests that black hole seeds were formed by pulling in gas from their domains and by a combination of smaller black holes, Astronomy magazine reported.

However, the new findings suggest that some of the initial black holes were built directly when a cloud of gas broke down, bypassing any other intermediate stages, like the formation and subsequent destruction of a large star. According to co-author Andrea Ferrara of SNS, there are many controversies over which direction these black holes take. She added that their work suggests that the black holes begin as large and grow at the usual rate instead of beginning small and growing at a very quick rate.

The giant black hole's computer models are being used to determine the candidates for the objects from images gathered from Hubble, Chandra and Spitzer.  The scientists are currently forming a theoretical framework to interpret the data, as they try to find the first black holes in the universe, according to Hubble Site.

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